Kev tshawb fawb lub neej: ecological ib puag ncig thiab tib neeg noj qab haus huv

Kev puas tsuaj ntawm ib puag ncig ecological los ntawm tej yam ntuj tso tej zaum yuav ua rau muaj kev puas tsuaj loj rau tib neeg lub neej thiab khoom, thiab txawm tias muaj kab mob. Txawm li cas los xij, kev puas tsuaj ntawm ib puag ncig ecological los ntawm tej yam ntuj tso feem ntau muaj cov yam ntxwv hauv cheeb tsam, thiab qhov tshwm sim ntawm qhov tshwm sim kuj tsawg. Tib neeg yam xws li ib puag ncig muaj kuab paug ua rau tib neeg ecosystem hnyav dua. Nws tuaj yeem ua rau muaj ntau yam ntawm cov xwm txheej mob hnyav thiab mob ntev, ua rau muaj mob qog noj ntshav hauv cov pej xeem, thiab tseem muaj kev cuam tshuam loj rau kev loj hlob thiab kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov tiam tom ntej. Environmental pollution tsis muaj ib thaj tsam hauv lub tebchaws los rhuav tshem ecology. Nws tsis tsuas yog cuam tshuam rau nws lub teb chaws, tab sis kuj tseem tuaj yeem cuam tshuam rau lub ntiaj teb ecological ib puag ncig.

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1. Cov teeb meem kub ntawm ib puag ncig muaj kuab lom

(1) Cov pa phem

1. Ntiaj teb sov sov thiab tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv

Kev nyab xeeb huab cua tau nce qhov tshwm sim ntawm qee yam kab mob kis los ntawm cov kab mob lom thiab cov kab mob nyob rau hauv lub tropics, xws li malaria, dengue fever, daj kub nag, vermicelli, Japanese encephalitis, qhua pias, thiab lwm yam. Lub sij hawm sib kis tau txuas ntxiv mus, thiab thaj chaw muaj kev sib kis. tau tsiv mus rau thaj chaw txias. Txuas ntxiv.

2. Ozone txheej puas tsuaj thiab tib neeg noj qab haus huv

Lub luag haujlwm ntawm ozone txheej: oxygen molecules yog irradiated los ntawm lub hnub ci zog, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog luv-yoj ultraviolet hluav taws xob los tsim ozone. Hloov pauv, ozone tuaj yeem nqus tau cov kab hluav taws xob ultraviolet nrog lub wavelength tsawg dua 340 nanometers, thiab decompose ozone rau hauv oxygen atoms thiab oxygen molecules, yog li ntawd lub ozone nyob rau hauv lub ozone txheej ib txwm tuav ib tug dynamic tshuav nyiaj li cas. Cov txheej ozone tuaj yeem nqus tau feem ntau ntawm cov hluav taws xob luv luv ultraviolet uas ua rau muaj kev phom sij los ntawm hnub ci hluav taws xob thiab cuam tshuam rau tib neeg lub neej thiab kev ciaj sia. Raws li kev tshawb fawb, rau txhua txhua 1% txo O3 nyob rau hauv ozone txheej, qhov tshwm sim ntawm squamous cell carcinoma nyob rau hauv cov pejxeem yuav nce 2% mus rau 3%, thiab tib neeg cov tawv nqaij mob cancer cov neeg mob kuj yuav nce 2%. Qhov morbidity Performance index ntawm cov kab mob ua pa thiab qhov muag o yuav nce ntxiv rau cov neeg hauv thaj chaw muaj kuab paug. Txij li cov khoom siv hauv paus DNA ntawm cov noob caj noob ces ntawm tag nrho cov kab mob muaj kev cuam tshuam rau ultraviolet rays, kev puas tsuaj ntawm ozone txheej yuav cuam tshuam rau kev loj hlob thiab kev loj hlob ntawm cov tsiaj thiab nroj tsuag.

3. Nitrogen oxide muaj kuab paug thiab kev noj qab haus huv ntawm tib neeg

Nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide thiab lwm yam nitrogen oxides yog cov pa phem hauv huab cua, uas tuaj yeem ua rau lub cev ua pa, ua rau mob hnyav thiab mob ntev, thiab cuam tshuam thiab ua rau tib neeg noj qab haus huv.

4. Sulfur dioxide muaj kuab paug thiab kev noj qab haus huv tib neeg

Kev puas tsuaj ntawm sulfur dioxide rau tib neeg lub cev yog:

(1) Irritating rau txoj kev ua pa. Sulfur dioxide yooj yim soluble hauv dej. Thaum nws dhau los ntawm lub qhov ntswg kab noj hniav, trachea, thiab bronchi, nws feem ntau absorbed thiab khaws cia los ntawm lub puab daim nyias nyias ntawm lub lumen, tig mus rau hauv sulfurous acid, sulfuric acid thiab sulfate, uas txhim kho cov nyhuv stimulating.

(2) Kev sib xyaw toxicity ntawm sulfur dioxide thiab tshem tawm cov teeb meem. Sulfur dioxide thiab tshem tawm cov teeb meem nkag mus rau tib neeg lub cev ua ke. Aerosol hais tuaj yeem nqa sulfur dioxide mus rau hauv lub ntsws sib sib zog nqus, ua rau muaj tshuaj lom ntau dua 3-4 zaug. Tsis tas li ntawd, thaum tshem tawm cov khoom muaj hlau xws li hlau trioxide, nws tuaj yeem ua rau cov oxidation ntawm sulfur dioxide rau hauv cov kua qaub, uas yog adsorbed rau saum npoo ntawm cov khoom thiab hloov mus rau hauv qhov sib sib zog nqus ntawm lub ntsws. Cov nyhuv stimulating ntawm sulfuric acid pos huab yog li 10 npaug zog dua li ntawm sulfur dioxide.

(3) Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob qog noj ntshav ntawm sulfur dioxide. Cov kev sim tsiaj tau pom tias 10 mg / m3 ntawm sulfur dioxide tuaj yeem txhim kho cov teebmeem carcinogenic ntawm carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (Benzo(a) pyrene; 3,4-Benzypyrene). Raws li kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm sulfur dioxide thiab benzo [a] pyrene, qhov tshwm sim ntawm tus tsiaj mob ntsws cancer siab dua li ntawm ib qho carcinogen. Tsis tas li ntawd, thaum sulfur dioxide nkag mus rau tib neeg lub cev, cov vitamins hauv cov ntshav yuav ua ke nrog nws, ua rau qhov sib npaug ntawm cov vitamin C hauv lub cev tsis sib npaug, yog li cuam tshuam rau cov metabolism. Sulfur dioxide tuaj yeem cuam tshuam thiab rhuav tshem lossis ua kom muaj kev ua haujlwm ntawm qee cov enzymes, ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam hauv cov metabolism hauv qab zib thiab protein, yog li cuam tshuam rau kev loj hlob thiab kev loj hlob ntawm lub cev.

5. Cov pa phem carbon monoxide thiab tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv

Cov pa roj carbon monoxide uas nkag mus rau tib neeg lub cev nrog huab cua tuaj yeem ua ke nrog hemoglobin (Hb) hauv cov ntshav tom qab nkag mus rau hauv cov ntshav los ntawm alveoli. Qhov sib txuam ntawm carbon monoxide thiab hemoglobin yog 200-300 npaug ntau dua li cov pa thiab hemoglobin. Yog li ntawd, thaum carbon monoxide invas lub cev, nws yuav sai sai synthesize carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) nrog hemoglobin, tiv thaiv kev sib xyaw ntawm oxygen thiab hemoglobin los ua oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). ), ua rau hypoxia tsim carbon monoxide lom. Thaum nqus tau cov pa roj carbon monoxide nrog qhov concentration ntawm 0.5%, ntev li 20-30 feeb, tus neeg raug lom yuav muaj lub plawv tsis muaj zog, ua pa qeeb, thiab thaum kawg qaug zog kom tuag. Hom kab mob carbon monoxide lom no feem ntau tshwm sim hauv kev sib tsoo ntawm lub tsev thiab cua kub tsis pom kev hauv tsev.

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2. Cov pa phem hauv chav thiab tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv

1. Cov pa phem ntawm cov khoom tsis zoo uas muaj nyob rau hauv cov khoom siv kho kom zoo nkauj: ntau yam khoom siv hauv tsev tshiab xws li plywood, xim, coatings, adhesives, thiab lwm yam yuav tsis tu ncua tso tawm formaldehyde. Formaldehyde yog ib qho cytoplasmic toxicant, uas tuaj yeem nqus tau los ntawm kev ua pa, plab hnyuv thiab tawv nqaij. Nws muaj zog stimulating nyhuv ntawm daim tawv nqaij, tuaj yeem ua rau cov coagulation thiab necrosis ntawm cov nqaijrog proteins, muaj ib tug inhibitory nyhuv ntawm lub hauv paus paj hlwb, thiab kuj yog ib tug mob ntsws carcinogen. Ntau cov kuab tshuaj thiab cov nplaum siv hauv kev kho kom zoo nkauj tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kuab paug ntawm cov organic sib txuas xws li benzene, toluene, xylene, thiab trichloroethylene.

2. Cov pa phem hauv chav ua noj: Thaum ua noj thiab hlawv, ntau yam roj tau hlawv tsis tiav nyob rau hauv qhov xwm txheej ntawm cov pa oxygen tsis txaus, thiab ntau cov polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons raug tsim. Lub aromatic hydrocarbons maj mam polymerize los yog cyclize ntawm 400℃~800, thiab cov generated benzo [α] Pyrene yog ib tug muaj zog carcinogen. Thaum lub sij hawm ua noj ua haus, cov roj ua noj decomposes ntawm qhov kub ntawm 270, thiab nws cov pa luam yeeb muaj polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons xws li benzo [α] pyrene thiab benzanthracene. Cov roj ua noj, ua ke nrog cov khoom noj xws li ntses thiab nqaij, tuaj yeem tsim cov hydrocarbons ntawm qhov kub thiab txias. , Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, heterocyclic amines thiab ntau tshaj 200 hom tshuaj, lawv cov tshuaj toxicity ntau dua li benzo[α] pyrene.

3. Hydrogen sulfide thiab methyl mercaptan emissions los ntawm chav dej thiab cov kav dej phwj tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phom sij ntev.

4. Kev ua qias tuaj ntawm cov tshuaj pleev ib ce, cov tshuaj niaj hnub thiab cov khoom siv tshuaj lom neeg.

5. "Electronic fog" ua paug: Cov cua txias, xim TV, khoos phis tawj, tub yees, tshuab luam ntawv, xov tooj ntawm tes, walkie-talkies thiab lwm yam khoom siv hluav taws xob tsim hluav taws xob-"electronic pos huab" rau qhov sib txawv thaum siv. "Electronic fog" tuaj yeem ua rau mob taub hau, qaug zog, ntxhov siab, pw tsis tsaug zog, thiab cuam tshuam rau menyuam txoj kev loj hlob.

 


Post lub sij hawm: Oct-15-2021